Monday, June 4, 2012

Conjugations to memorize


wissen                 zwingen                   werden           haben               sehen


ich weiß              ich zwinge              ich werde          ich sehe            ich habe       
du weißt             du zwingeſt             du wirst            du siehst           du hast
er/sie/es weiß     er/sie/es zwingt       er/sie/es wird     er/sie/es sieht   er/sie/es hat
wir wissen           wir zwingen            wir werden        wir sehen          wir haben
ihr wißt              ihr zwingt               ihr werdet        ihr seht              ihr habt
Sie/sie wissen      Sie/sie zwingen       Sie/sie werden   Sie/sie sehen    Sie/sie haben


ich wußte           ich zwang               ich wurde          ich sah               ich hatte
du wußteſt         du zwangst             du wurdest         du sahst            du hattest
er/sie/es wußte   er/sie/es zwang      er/sie/es wurde  er/sie/es sah       er/sie/es hatte
wir wußten         wir zwangen           wir wurden        wir sahen           wir hatten
ihr wußtet          ihr zwangt              ihr wurdet         ihr saht             ihr hattet
Sie/sie wußten   Sie/sie zwangen       Sie/sie wurden   Sie/sie sahen    Sie/sie hatten


gewußt              gezwungen              geworden            gehabt             gesehen

Friday, June 1, 2012

A week before last Monday we read the first three paragraphs of the chapter on Danzig in Knickerbocker's Kommt Krieg in Europa? A day or two before that we discussed word-order (normal, inverted, dependent) and definite articles and relative pronouns, so that the student would have the necessary tools to determine vaguely what was going on in most of the sentences. I only asked him to identify the main and dependent clauses but he translated a good bit of it.

During the session I explained the imperfect subjunctive, which is generally formed (where possible) by adding an umlaut to the imperfect indicative form. As in English, the imperfect subjunctive is used for present contrary-to-fact statements. It also became necessary to explain the use of the double infinitive, which stands for an infinitive followed by a perfect participle. We discussed the use of werden to form the present passive, perfect passive, and future indicative.

In the next session earlier this week, we reviewed the section already covered. I gave some explanation of separable verbs, and how the perfect participle is formed from separable verbs, and also the fact that zu will be sandwiched between the verb-stem and the prefix in an infinitive-clause. I instructed the student to review the conjugation of haben in the present and imperfect indicative, since he had forgotten it. Once he knows the imperfect indicative, the imperfect subjunctive will be self-evident, and that is appearing a lot in this section due to the use of past contrary-to-fact conditional statements.

The student is getting used to the fact that when the main verb is some form of haben or sein or  werden, it is necessary to go to the end of the clause before continuing, to find out if there is an infinitive or  perfect participle that goes with it.